Saturday, March 14, 2020

Spelling and Sound Challenges to Spanish L2 Learners of English

Spelling and Sound Challenges to Spanish L2 Learners of English Abstract Learning a second language is usually a difficult task for most people. This is because; each language has its own conventions, which are not necessarily similar to those of the second language one is trying to acquire. For native Spanish speakers trying to learn English as a second language, numerous challenges may be present.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Spelling and Sound Challenges to Spanish L2 Learners of English specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In the literature review, spelling and sound system in the English language shall be addressed as the most common challenge encountered by Spanish learners of English as a second language. Problems arising from spelling and sound could be related to difficulties in pronunciation of words, learning of English vocabulary, grammar and spelling of words. Pronunciation of English words for native Spanish speakers may be a problem because of some words which star t with a certain sound for example ‘s’, being pronounced in a different way in the Spanish language. Because it is very natural for a learner to replicate the conventions of their language into the second language they are learning, it may be difficult for them to understand the pronunciation. Again, learning of vocabulary may be difficult because of words present in both languages which appear to have the same spelling but different meaning. The grammar and the spelling of words follow different conventions in the English language. In the methodologies section, selection of participants, data collection methods and procedure used will be addressed. The results of this report shall then be analyzed and thereafter, a discussion and conclusion shall follow. Introduction Those who speak Spanish as their first language have some advantages when learning English as a second language. One of the advantages is that, native Spanish speakers learn English vocabulary faster becau se of the numerous similarities that exist among words in the two languages. Nevertheless, there are some specific difficulties that native Spanish speakers encounter while learning English as a second language. Some of these problems are found in the area of spelling and sound while learning English. Most of the learners will encounter problems in these two areas because of the disparities that exist between the Spanish and the English language in spelling and sound pattern of words.Advertising Looking for report on linguistics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Literature Review Pronunciation Difficulties According to Farnen (2010), native Spanish learning English as a second language experience difficulties in learning English pronunciations. This is because, the there are numerous differences that exists in the pronunciation of words in the languages. The English language comprises of twelve vowels. There are also eight diphthongs. On the other hand, the Spanish language has only five vowels and five diphthongs. Due this background, whereby one is familiar with only five diphthongs and vowels, it becomes hard for such a person to learn English, which has numerous vowels and diphthongs. One challenge that native Spanish speakers encounter in the area of pronunciation is distinguishing between words in English that have similar pronunciation but different spelling, especially because of the vowels or diphthongs used. For exampled, the words ‘beat’ and ‘bit’ word be very challenging for a Spanish speaker to distinguish. Moreover, Farnen (2010) states that confusion of consonants may arise. Some English consonants such as ‘S’ may be confused for ‘Z’. Consequently, the English word ‘Sue’ may end up being pronounced as ‘Zoo’. Again, confusion between the consonants ‘b’ and ‘v’ is very common. The other sound that is very problematic to native Spanish speakers learning English as a second language is pronunciation of the initial sound ‘s’ in English words such as ‘solar’. This is mainly because in the Spanish language, the initial ‘S’ sound in the beginning of words is always preceded by an ‘e’ sound. The word ‘solar’ in English would end up being pronounced as ‘esolar’ by native Spanish speakers learning English. The initial ‘S’ sound in word’s beginnings will always give them problems. According to Farnen (2010), there is also a variation in the rhythm of syllables in words. This is because, in the Spanish language, all syllables have an equal length. However, in English, there are accented syllables, which are given more duration compared to the other syllables. This fact can be very difficult to understand for the native Spanish speakers who use an even rhythm in speaking En glish.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Spelling and Sound Challenges to Spanish L2 Learners of English specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Difficulty in learning vocabulary Skehan (1991) observes that there are many words in both English and Spanish languages that are similar. This similarity in a vast number of vocabulary works both for and against a person learning English as a second language. Some words that appear in both the English the Spanish language may confuse the learner, because they are not the same in their meaning. Examples of some of those words that may appear to be the same but in actual sense are not include the English ‘exit’ and Spanish ‘exito’. What is more is that some Germanic components which exist in the English language may present the Spanish learner with a lot of difficulties in mastering the language. An example of the Germanic component found in the English lan guage is the phrasal verb ‘look for’. Germanic derived components found in the English language are more difficult for the Spanish speaker to merge than French derived components. Difficulties in Grammar Learning English grammar for native speakers is one of the most difficult tasks. This is because of the confusion that always arises during learning. Particularly, there is a problem with relating the verb endings in Spanish with those in English. According to Hinkel (2011), verbs in the Spanish language have more verb endings compared to verbs in the English language, which poses a challenge to the Spanish learners in understanding the English verbs. In the English language, a meaningful and complete sentence always comprises of a subject, verb and an object. However, a complete sentence in the Spanish language does not always need a subject to be complete. Consequently, Spanish learners of English as a second language end up omitting the subject or subject pronouns in English sentences when writing or speaking. They are affected by the Spanish word order, which they tend to replicate in their English sentences, instead of the conventional subject-verb-object sentence structure required in an English sentence. Swan Smith (2001) note that: another problem arises when they are required to form negatives as well as questions using the helping verb ‘do’. This is mainly because in the Spanish language, the use of the helping verb ‘do’ is not necessary in order to form questions and negatives.Advertising Looking for report on linguistics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Third person singular possessive adjectives, which require the use of the correct gender in order for the sentence to be correct, are a major challenge to Spanish learners of English. This is because in the English language, there is differentiation of the genders in the third person singular possessive adjective, while in Spanish, this is not the case. There is only one third person singular possessive adjective that can be used for the English her, his and its. Difficulties in spelling and punctuation According to Shatz and Wilkinson (2010), native Spanish speakers experience a lot of problems in spelling English words correctly. This is because the native Spanish speakers have knowledge of Spanish, which is a language with more system as compared to the English language. Words in the English language which have the same sound can be spelt differently but in Spanish, the same sound is always spelt in the same way in all words. For example, the English sound /f/ can be spelt differ ently, for example, /gh/ as in ‘cough’, and /f/ as in ‘floor’. However, in the Spanish language, such a sound would only have a single spelling. This makes it difficult for the native speakers to understand how the same sound can be spelt differently in English words. The many vowels and diphthongs present in the English language pose a major challenge to the Spanish learners. The use of punctuation marks in sentences and in words is also confusing for native Spanish speakers. Difficulties in knowing where to put exclamation marks or question marks result to incorrect sentences. The Spanish learners have a tendency to put these punctuation marks at the wrong places for example at the beginning or at the end of sentences. This happens mostly in writing. The native Spanish speakers have also a problem in connecting sentences meaningfully. This is because they tend to use commas to link independent clauses in sentences, which results to wrong sentence structur es. Methodology Participants Twenty participants were selected randomly. The participants were chosen from Spanish native speakers who were learning English as a second language. Materials The content from books which handle the topic of difficulties encountered while learning English as a second language were used. Particularly, the area of spelling and sound challenges for native Spanish people learning English as a second language was the main focus. Procedure Various data collection methods were used. One of these methods was the use of interviews. In this case, the participants were individually interviewed in order to assess their understanding on the spelling and sound challenges they encountered while learning English. The participants were told to give their personal challenges that they encountered while learning spelling and sounds in English. The sessions lasted for an average of twenty minutes each. Group interviews were also conducted, whereby the same question was ask ed. Also, the observation method was used. The participants were observed while in a natural setting. In this case, they were observed while they were learning English during the lesson. Further observations were made while they were out of the lesson and were practicing what they had learnt by trying to speak English. While conducting both the interview and the observation, the sessions were video taped. This was done to enable the researcher look at the sessions later and make a correct analysis. Results The results showed that native Spanish learners of English language experience some difficulties while learning spelling and sounds in the English language. Some of these challenges include: Difficulties in pronunciation of English words due to the sounds that exist in both the Spanish and the English language but the pronunciation are different. Difficulties for the Spanish learners to learn English vocabulary because of similarities in some words in spelling in both languages b ut their meanings are different. Disparities in grammar rules between the English and the Spanish language also pose a major challenge to Spanish learners of English language. Finally, spelling of words which have different spelling but the sound is the same in English is a problem to native Spanish people learning English. Discussion and conclusion According to Hall (1995), the spelling of words in English is dependent on two major factors namely: phonology and morphology. This means that it is possible predict the spelling of some words in English based on their pronunciation, for example the word ‘fat’. However, it is not possible apply the same in some words in English. For example, some words retain the same root when they are changed to form words in different word classes but their pronunciation change. For instance, the second ‘c’ sound in the words electric, electricity, and electrician keep on changing as the word changes to form a different word . Additionally, Spanish learners of the English language use the grammar rules of their native language to spell words in English, which end up complicating their process of learning. Grammar conventions such as when to use capital letters vary from one language to another. Spanish learners of the English language need to be taught the new rules in depth to enhance a deeper understanding of the English language. Conclusion Learning a second language is not an easy task for people who speak a single language. This is especially difficult because, the learners of a second language are conversant with the conventions of their first language and they may try to apply the same rules to the second language they are learning. This may be a disadvantage to them because it may hinder their acquisition of the English language. According to Oxford (1990), those who teach native Spanish speakers English as a second language should teach the new rules in English explicitly to ensure that there i s an in depth understanding of English as a second language. Reference List Hall, D. (1995). Assessing the Needs of Bilingual Pupils: Living in Two Languages. London: Fulton. Hinkel, E. (2011). Handbook of Research in Second Language Teaching and Learning:  ESL and applied linguistics professional series. New York: Taylor Francis. Farnen, K. (2010). Common English Difficulties for ESL Spanish Students. Santa Monica: Demand Media, Inc. Oxford, R. (1990). Language Learning Strategies. Boston: Heinle Heinle Publishers. Shatz, M. and Wilkinson, L. (2010). The Education of English Language Learners:  Research to Practice Challenges in language and literacy. New York: Guilford Press. Skehan, P. (1991). Individual differences in second language learning. Studies in  Second Language Acquisition, 13, 188-221. Swan, M. Smith, B. (2001). Learner English 2nd Edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

Performance appraisals in mc donalds Assignment

Performance appraisals in mc donalds - Assignment Example Living up by the brand name and delivering the customers with the desired services that meet their quality and taste considerations make up for the company policy. Further, ensuring equal care for the employees is also part of McDonald’s policy and procedure. McDonalds makes use of result based evaluation of the employees. This is based on the results and the satisfaction level of the customers. This is better compared to the other two mentioned because it comes directly through the customers response. Keeping the customers views as priority, the evaluation according to the customers’ response also helps assessing the employees accordingly. On the job based behavior and responses is also a key to evaluation. McDonalds Company takes into account all the professional company requirements. This is done so on account of the quality management skills incorporation. These skills and standards make the training and development process a mandatory part of the overall business procedure. This is done so by the companies in order to make up for the quality needs that are set forth by the quality assurance based companies and quality techniques such as Total Quality management and other customer centric processes and business purposes. At McDonalds, the evaluation process consists of input from number of sources. Based on this the output is a blend of external sources as well which include the supervisor’s opinion as well as the client’s response. Since the evaluation is largely based on the on the job details and descriptions and the customers are a key source to the on the job description and behavior determination, therefore the McDonalds employees evaluation is based on the multiple discipline based assessment. Multi source feedback is an essential tool of marketing and business activities with regard to determination of customers interest and overall performance of the organization. McDonalds makes use of the 360 degree feedback. This

Monday, February 10, 2020

When Starbucks was launched who was the target market, how was Case Study

When Starbucks was launched who was the target market, how was Starbucks positioned and what decisions about product, price, distribution, service and promotion supported this positioning - Case Study Example With his sound business strategies, the company has achieved market leadership in the specialty coffee industry. This paper enumerates the different marketing strategies utilized by Starbucks in order to achieve the position that it has held today. It evaluates the different marketing mixes that contributed to the success of the company. The paper focuses on the product & services positioning strategies, pricing strategy, distribution channels and promotion strategies. In order for a business to grow and achieve market leadership, it must create a strong market orientation. The company must seek to understand the customer needs and develop its marketing strategies in response to those needs. The strategies should aim at attracting, satisfying and retaining target customers. (Best, 1997) When Starbucks initially started, their product portfolio includes dark-roast, whole bean coffee and manual coffee pots and equipments. The company is in the retail business of offering their products to customers who like to brew at home. Their target market is the people from Seattle who are educated on fine coffees. These are type of people who love quality brewed coffees. When Schultz joined Starbucks, he envisioned the company as becoming the Third Place. The Third Place is considered as the place between home and work. The company was now engaged in serving coffee to customers similar to Italian espresso bars. It is in this stage of the company’s life cycle that their target customer also includes people who are educated with college degrees and high annual income. The market segment responded positively to the Starbuck’s marketing strategy such that the company grew rapidly. Schultz and his management team strategically positioned Starbucks as a strong brand that not only spells quality coffee beverages but also a unique experience in which the customer longs for and

Thursday, January 30, 2020

Transcendentalism and Romanticism Essay Example for Free

Transcendentalism and Romanticism Essay Romanticism is a literary, artistic, and philosophical movement that began in Europe it shaped all the arts in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. In a general sense, romanticism refers to several distinct groups of artists, poets, writers, and musicians as well as political, philosophical and social thinkers and trends of the late 18th and early 19th centuries in Europe. Romanticism generally stressed the essential goodness of human beings. In its intense focus on the individual consciousness, it was both a continuation of and a reaction against the Enlightenment. (Romanticism) Romanticism did emphasize the individual, the subjective, the irrational, the imaginative, the personal, the spontaneous, the emotional, the visionary, and the transcendental. (Britannica) Romantic literature displayed a number of recurrent motifs: the theme of the individual in rebellion; the symbolic interpretation of the historic past; subjects from myth and folklore; the glorification of nature; faraway settings; sentimentalism; the nobility of the uncivilized man (the Native American, for example); admiration for the simple life; the elevation of the common man; a fascination with Gothic themes, with the supernatural and mysterious, with introspection, melancholy, and horror; and a humanitarian political and social outlook. The romantic impulse played a major role in the mid-nineteenth century blossoming of American literature and art that has been called the American Renaissance. (Cliff notes) Many depict this capacity for human growth as the triumph of the intuitive over the methodical and rational. Some suppose that individual self-culture will lead to social progress, even political revolution. (Romanticism) There were many great romantic writers on is the very well known Edgar Allan Poe who is best known as a literary figure, a writer of short stories and poetry. A surprising amount of his thought was devoted to natural science, with which he seems to have had a love-hate relationship. Poe often regarded himself as a paragon of rational thought but he seems to have held a characteristically romantic view of rationality, seeking to apply an artistic esthetic as the ultimate criterion for scientific truth. He was very well known and did many great works such as â€Å"The Raven† â€Å"The Fall of the House of Usher† and many more. He is known world wide still today and is very influential he is one of the best if not the best romantic writer of any period. (Math pages) Although another great write would be Emily Dickenson who was also a great romantic poet that wrote about love, death, and the human relationship with God and nature she helps show how romanticism can tie in with philosophy and religion. (Dickenson) William Blake was probably the most singular of the English romantics. His poems and paintings are radiant, imaginative, and heavily symbolic, indicating the spiritual reality underlying the physical reality. (E-topic) The works of James Fennimore Cooper reflected the romantic interest in the historical past, whereas the symbolic novels of Hawthorne and Melville emphasized the movements concern with transcendent reality. (Berklee) The other form of art is â€Å"Transcendentalism which was an American literary and philosophical movement of the nineteenth century† (phl) founded in New England, which asserting the existence of an ideal spiritual reality that transcends the empirical and scientific and is knowable through intuition. The founders of transcendentalism were Unitarian intellectuals and from them the transcendentalists took a concern for self-culture, a sense of moral seriousness, a neo-Platonic concept of piety, a tendency toward individualism, a belief in the importance of literature, and an interest in moral reform. The transcendentalist’s idealistic system of thought is based on a belief in the essential unity of all creation, the innate goodness of humankind, and the supremacy of vision over logic and experience for the revelation of the deepest truths bound them all together. Transcendentalist writers and their contemporaries signaled the emergence of a new national culture based on native materials, and they were a major part of the American Renaissance in literature. They advocated reforms in church, state, and society, contributing to the rise of free religion and the abolition movement and to the formation of various utopian communities, such as Brook Farm. The transcendentalists became pioneers in the American study of comparative religion. (Transcendentalism) The Transcendentalists also conveyed their philosophy, concerns, and creativity through shorter pieces printed in the periodical publications that were important to the intellectual life of the mid-nineteenth century. (Cliff notes) Emerson was transcendentalisms most philosophical writer and its greatest advocate for unification with the Universal Spirit or the One. (Romanticism) His poems, orations, and especially his essays, such as Nature, are regarded as landmarks in the development of American thought and literary expression. (Emerson) Emerson became close friends with Margaret Fuller an author and revolutionist and introduced her to a wide circle of intellectuals, including the transcendentalists. Fullers argument that women had a universal sacred right to develop their individual natures stemmed from transcendental philosophy, but her radical call to collective action, her attack upon the sexual double standard, and her endorsement of womens entrance into the public sphere earned her a feminist reputation. (Fuller) Another woman who is related to transcendentalism is Elizabeth Peabody who opened the first kindergarten in the United States. Peabody was a teacher, writer, and prominent figure in the transcendental movement, editing The Dial, the chief literary publication of the movement, for two years. (Memory) Romanticism greatly impacted transcendentalists. The Romantic Movement in Britain, Europe, and America provided the broad literary background for the rise of transcendentalism. (Cliff notes) Emerson’s transcendentalism is in some ways an American offshoot of romanticism, but with a greater religious and philosophical emphasis that manifests itself in highly intellectual essays rather than spontaneous lyrics. (cwrl) American Romanticism was powerfully expressed with the anonymous publication of Emerson’s Nature. This manifesto of transcendentalism, based on earlier journal entries, sermons, and lectures, was soon followed by the important addresses â€Å"The American Scholar† and the â€Å"Divinity School Address†. (Cliff notes) British Romantic authors William Wordsworth, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, and Thomas Carlyle greatly influenced the New England transcendentalists by together writing Lyrical Ballads. In these poems, Wordsworth and Coleridge presented personal feeling, employed language that reflected the spoken rather than the stylized written word, and focused on both the supernatural and ordinary experience. (Cliff notes) Romanticism in the form of transcendentalism was communicated foremost through the writings of the faithful. Emerson, Thoreau, Fuller, and others published lengthy works of a range of types on a variety of subjects, each in its own way an expression of romantic ideals. (Cliff Notes) Transcendental movement may be described as a slightly later, American outgrowth of romanticism. (Wikipedia) You have now learned about romanticism and what it is and the impact it has in our culture along with what transcendentalism and the impact made but it as well. I also showed you the impact of romanticism on transcendentalism and how closely they are both related. I hope it was shown that romanticism and transcendentalism are two great forms of art that greatly contributed to literature and made it what it is today. Formun Ustu For literature, Romanticism was just opposite of the Enlightenment: ENLIGHTENMENT | ROMANTICISM | * there is a static vision of the * world * there is conservatism * there is rationality * there is uniformity of ideas * the most important subjects are * physic and maths | * there is a dynamic vision of the * world * there is a revolution * there are sentiments or feelings * there is diversity of ideas * the most important subjects are * biology and, later, genetics|.

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

Cloning: an Interference of Nature’s Design :: essays research papers

Cloning: an Interference of Nature’s Design Cloning Einstein will not be the same Albert Einstein. The new version of Einstein might turn out to hate mathematics. Health risks from mutation of genes are risky. There is a concern that there is the possibility that the genetic material used from the adult will continue to age so that the genes in a newborn baby clone could be for example 30 years old or more when it is born. Many attempts at animal cloning produced disfigured bodies with severe abnormalities. However some abnormalities may not appear until after birth. A cloned cow recently died several weeks after birth with abnormality of blood cell production. Dolly the Sheep died prematurely of severe lung disease in February 2003, and also suffered from arthritis at an unexpectedly early age, which is probably linked to the cloning process. Even if a few cloned babies are born apparently normal we will have to wait up to 20 years to be sure they are not going to have problems later for example growing old too fast. Many clones born in the future may have severe medical problems. Emotional problems can grow as a cloned child grows up knowing her mother is her sister, her grandmother is her mother and her father is her brother-in-law. Every time her mother looks at her, she is seeing herself growing up. It is an unbearable emotional pressure on teenagers trying their identity. What happens to a marriage when the "father" sees his wife's clone grow up into the exact replica of the beautiful 18 year old he fell in love with 35 years ago? It would be horrible to clone people because we all are design by the nature, and if we take matter at our hands, it will make unbalance, not that it is already.

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Running Head: British Airways †A Marketing Plan

British Airways is one airline that has gone through both bright and turbulent times since its founding in 1974.[i]   After thirteen years of government control, British Airways went into privatization in 1987.[ii]   The airline is the surviving entity after merger and consolidations made with British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOAC) and British European Airways Corporation (BEA).Currently it operates about 240 aircrafts servicing 120 destinations throughout the United Kingdom and Europe, Africa, North and South America, the Middle East, Asia and the Pacific.[iii].British Airways competes with about 42 other British airlines but has maintained leadership in most areas of the aviation industry not only in the United Kingdom but in Europe as well.[iv] Its main competitor is Virgin Atlantic, an airline established by Richard Branson in 1984 and with about 10 per cent market share in terms of kilometers logged as of 2007.[v]As airlines around the world struggle to survive in the m idst of the worldwide financial crisis, British Airways vows to target growth and raise its market share while intently addressing its operational concerns towards excellence and financial health.The surging complexity of the market ahead is expected to put the airline industry on the offensive to obviate possible downturns as what happened to the automobile and the investment banking industries during the last quarter of 2008 leading to the global financial turmoil.Reports had it that requests for government bailouts were made in the face of lower demand from car buyers. The airline industry thus, is among those expected and likely to be affected by the crisis due to the expected economic contraction in the aftermath of the financial meltdown.Importance of the StudyThe study is an attempt at providing a trajectory, focus as well as strategic road map on how British Airways should repackage itself towards upgrading and raising its potentials in a cutthroat aviation industry not mere ly in the United Kingdom but in the airline’s other service areas around the globe, Europe especially.For a start, British Airways dutifully crafted the BA Business Plan (BP11) which is aimed at focusing on four key priorities arising out of the previous year’s plans. These are:  (1) Upgraded customer experience with its trademark Basics and Brilliance, Club World, First Cabin and similar programs meant to introduce innovative customer come-ons with its plan to acquire long-haul aircrafts as well as counter the negative impact of the operating glitches during the transitions experience at Heathrow Terminals 1, 4 and 5. Incidentally, this was planned to introduce new forms of premium customer experience through increased presence in the European and American markets;(2) Planning for growth in terms of new long haul aircrafts, premium services and added destinations between Europe and the Americas;(3) Continuing need to control costs in the face of tight competition, r ising cost of delivering service, fuel and administrative costs. The entity additionally attempts at undertaking a more efficient assets and liability management to reasonably assure itself the advantage of liquidity and solvency under the current economic environment; and,(4) Taking a lead in corporate social responsibility to articulate a social and corporate balance in the conduct of its operations.[vi]A critical component of BP11 is the marketing plan (MP11) which identifies and concentrates on the opportunities available to British Airways worldwide in congruence with its identified key priorities.The marketing plan clearly outlines a road map towards market recovery via excellence in the basics, and ultimately to the deployment of brilliant premium services not available anywhere or in other airlines competing in identical routes.Specifically, the Marketing Plan MP11 cross links with the Business Plan (BP11) with the former as the centrepiece of the airline’s assertive leadership thrusts towards the first half of the 21st century. Just like the Victoria era slogan that the â€Å"sun does not set on the British empire†, British Airways is determined to head for industry prominence after several turbulent encounters with difficult challenges that it had to go through.Apparently brought about by its own weight, its bigness is without the support mechanism it needed to stabilize its moves.   A component of the BP11, the MP11 describes in more detailed fashion how the BP11 will breathe through the heart of the MP11 which is considered the heart of the Business Plan.On the aspect of significance on research, the MP11 serves as the management blue print for strategic decision-making; especially in the area of marketing management under various assumptions, scenarios, alliances and configurations.Strategic marketing management which is contained in this road map MP 11 will enable management to adopt strategies such as cost leadership, attractive premium services, human resource strategies and expanded terminal network in the industry as means to create a demand gap in the long haul travel sector as well as a similar gap in the premium business travel from continental Europe to the premier city of New York in the United States. The experiences of the past years are expected to provide hard lessons for British Airways management towards strategic marketing processes.For the business traveller all over, the MP11 attempts to redefine the concept of basic and premium travel. With the integration of cost advantage expected to ensue along the airline’s objective of operational excellence, airline travellers can reasonably expect these cost rationalization measures to have a positive effect on the pricing competitiveness of British Airways while maintaining the class with which British Airways has been known for.The airline industry, for one, is likewise expected to significantly benefit from this study specifically in the a rea of collaboration, alliances and economic cooperation without any attempt at abusing the regulatory privilege this union may provide such alliances.Hence, partnerships should be undertaken for the development and maintenance of constructive relationship with other companies in the industry as at work.[vii] In the same way that this will be tempered and enhanced by a strong corporate social responsibility not only in terms of the environmental aspect, it is expected similarly to be strong along the social issues directly and indirectly affected by the industry.The society, in general, and the employees in particular will reap benefits from this study in terms and along the key balanced scorecard perspectives over secure employment tenure, human resource training and performance recognition dimensions incorporated into the business and marketing plans; all considered critical components and means to stabilize the goal of operational excellence with a genuine corporate social respon sibility.Primarily, the shareholders are the targets of this study as among the major beneficiaries through which an innovative and unprecedented pricing incorporates real shareholder value and corporate pride enhanced with financial viability through operational excellence.   British Airways aims to show gratitude for continued support and recognition as Britain’s primary carrier.The academe is similarly expected to acquiesce the benefits from this Plan which comes as a result of intensive research and careful study on the travel and industry markets in which British Airways is among the major players.Of equal importance is the fact that British Airways is a corporate organization that is considered an excellent source of academic studies in an industry characterized with great risks, complexities as well as opportunities with huge potentials for learning, and even further researches. [i]   Annual Report, 2007, British Airways,, accessed Dec ember 28, 2008 [ii]   Ibid.,  [iii]   Ibid,,  [iv]   Ibid.,,  [v]   Ibid.,,  [vi]   Ibid,,p. 34  [vii]   J. Hicks, The Challenge of the New Millenium: winning the Struggle with Ourselves, New Falcon Publications, Arizona, 1997, p. 131.   

Monday, January 6, 2020

Computer Ethics Term Paper Security Vs. Privacy

James Santana Computer Ethics Term Paper Security vs. Privacy Following the terrorist attacks on September of 2001, President George W. Bush signed into law The USA PATRIOT Act. Intended to enhance law enforcement investigatory tools, The Patriot Act made changes to surveillance laws that enabled the U.S government to collect computer information about both American and foreign citizens in unprecedented ways. During the following years, through a series of legislative changes and court decisions, The United States National Security Agency was gradually granted the authority to collect information on a massive scale by implementing programs such as PRISM, which collects internet communications from at least nine major US internet companies such as Google, Facebook Yahoo and Apple ; XKEYSCORE, which gave the NSA the ability to secretly access databases containing emails, online chats and the browsing histories of millions of individuals; MYSTIC, which allows them to collect the metadata as well as the content of phone calls from several entire countries, as well as many other programs with similar mass surveillance capabilities . To put it in simple terms, together this programs essentially enables almost unlimited warrantless surveillance of anyone and everyone anywhere in the world, regardless of that person nationality, affiliation or lack thereof to any criminal or terrorist group. In 2013 Edward Snowden, a former CIA employee and NSA contractor, leakedShow MoreRelatedEthical and Legal Dilemma in It4378 Words   |  18 Pagesâ€Å"the study of moral, legal, and social issues involving cybertechnology† (2010, pg. 3), law is usually/always a part of cyberethics to one degree or another. Being right or wrong based on society’s value builds the fundamentals of ethics. Moral principles make up ethics. Values are maintained based on the law, which in turn encourages us to uphold the laws based on those principles. There are at times when something may be unethical but may still uphold the law and the values are not being takenRead MoreIndividual Privacy vs National Security5833 Words   |  24 PagesIndividual Privacy VS National Security John Williams ENG 122: GSE 1244A Instructor: Ebony Gibson November 1, 2012 Individual Privacy VS National Security Introduction Since the terrorist attack of 9/11, America has been in a high level conflict with terrorist around the world, particularly the group known as Al Qaeda. There has been many discussions within the U.S. Congress about the measures of how to effectively combat this organization and their members, here and abroad. ConsequentlyRead MoreEssay on Hackers vs. Crackers3187 Words   |  13 PagesHackers vs. Crackers Introduction When you hear the word hacker, you probably think of a nerdy, teen-aged boy sitting behind a computer with sinister plans for his attack flowing through the keystrokes of his fingers. You probably think of a techno-criminal defacing websites, shutting down computer systems, stealing money or confidential information-basically a threat to society. But these descriptions may describe someone else enterely. Many in the computer community contend that this criminalRead MoreInternet Banking3249 Words   |  13 PagesInternet Banking (with examples from Developed vs Developing Countries) Presented to: Bert Lind Presented by: Group No.1 †¢ S101417 Shahid Javed †¢ S104503 Mumtaz Ali †¢ S104451 Asif Iqbal †¢ S101291 Mm Mudassar †¢ S101659 Muhammad Shahzad Abstract We have discussed internet banking and security issues. Then we have given comparison of internet banking in developed countries and developing countries on the basis of security and infrastructure issues. Examples of banks are given from Pakistan (HSBC) andRead More The Database Dilemma Essay3843 Words   |  16 PagesThe Database Dilemma Personal privacy today is a controversial and complex topic, which is influenced by a number of factors. There is an integral role that databases play in this highly debated topic. The fact that many people now carry out their transactions electronically is another important factor. There is also pressure on personal privacy for increased national security around the world to combat terrorism. In addition, personal privacy is even threatened by commercial factors and theRead MoreEthics of Information Communication Technology (Ict)27618 Words   |  111 Pages239 ETHICS OF INFORMATION COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT) Paper prepared by Tengku Mohd T. 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Hackers can benefit from a wide range of weaknesses in security, break into systems, find the information they need,Read MoreEthical and Social Issues in Information Systems20165 Words   |  81 Pagescontemporary information systems and the Internet on the protection of individual privacy and intellectual property. 4. Assess how information systems have affected everyday life. CHAPTER OUTLINE 4.1 UNDERSTANDING ETHICAL AND SOCIAL ISSUES RELATED TO SYSTEMS A Model for Thinking About Ethical, Social, and Political Issues Five Moral Dimensions of the Information Age Key Technology Trends that Raise Ethical Issues ETHICS IN AN INFORMATION SOCIETY Basic Concepts: Responsibility, Accountability, andRead MoreeCommerce Developments and Themes10793 Words   |  44 Pagesconflict over copyrights, content regulation, taxation, privacy, and Internet fraud and abuse. E-commerce E-business E-commerce involves digitally enabled commercial transactions between and among organizations and individuals → Digitally enabled transactions: all transactions mediated by digital technology → Commercial transactions: exchange of value across organizational or individual boundaries in return for products or service. We use the term e-business to refer primarily to the digital enablementRead MoreEssay on Hackers and Security Measures4415 Words   |  18 PagesHackers and Security Measures A diffuse group of people often called â€Å"hackers† has been characterised as unethical, irresponsible, and a serious danger to society for actions related to breaking into computer systems. In this essay I try to construct a picture of what is and includes a computer crime as well as a portray of hackers, their concerns, and the way in which hacking takes place. What I intend to argue is that, in their majority, hackers are learners and explorers who want to help